Do people in heaven exist as disembodied spirits?

Heaven is the dwelling place of God, of His angels, and the destiny of those who trust in Jesus Christ as their Savior and Redeemer (John 3:16; 14:6; 1 Timothy 2:5-6).


When a believer in Christ dies, his or her physical body remains on earth and, at the moment of death, the soul (or spirit) of that believer goes immediately into the presence of God — to the third heaven or paradise.

This is what is meant by being, “absent from the body and at home with the Lord” (II Corinthians 5:8-10; cf. Philippians 1:21-23). Consider several Scriptures on this important subject:

Hebrews 12:23

In this amazing text, we learn that when believers come together to worship God (in this life), they come not only into the presence of their Father in heaven, but also into the presence of “the spirits of righteous men made perfect.”  The phrase “the spirits of righteous men made perfect” refers to our fellow believers who have gone to heaven before us (those who are absent from their earthly bodies and at home with their Lord).

The identification as “spirits” is a designation of the souls of believers which are separated from their earthly bodies until the resurrection.  In 2 Corinthians 5:8, the apostle referred to his preference to be “away from the body and at home with the Lord.”  We know that when Christ returns, the souls of believers will be reunited with their resurrected and transformed bodies. Philippians 3:20-21, for example, reveals that when Christ returns He will “transform our lowly bodies to be like His glorious body” (cf. Jn. 5:28-29).

What is the nature of our existence in heaven?

If you died today, we know that (as a believer) you would go directly to heaven and leave your physical body on earth until the resurrection. But would you have to exist as a disembodied spirit throughout the intermediate time between death and resurrection? This is a question that is debated among Bible scholars. I am not suggesting I will be able to settle the debate but we can look at a several related Scriptures.

Revelation 6:9-11

In this text, the Apostle John observes “the souls” of believers who had been martyred because of their commitment to God’s word and their evident testimony for Christ. Their association with an altar perpetuates the understanding of heaven as a temple. “The Lord is in His holy temple, let the earth keep silence before Him” (Habakkuk 2:20; cf. Psalm 18:6). The altar presents a view of their deaths as sacrificial from heaven’s perspective (cf. 2 Tim. 4:6; Phil. 2:17).

It is interesting to note that these departed martyrs, these “souls” under the altar—“cry out with a loud voice” and are each given a “white robe” to wear (verse 11). What should we understand from this? Is it possible that they have some kind of intermediate body? It certainly appears to be the case.

Revelation 7:9-10

This text reveals another group in heaven prior to the resurrection. They are described in ways that also imply bodily presence.

“After this I saw a vast crowd, too great to count, from every nation and tribe and people and language, standing in front of the throne and before the Lamb. They were clothed in white robes and held palm branches in their hands. And they were shouting with a mighty shout, “Salvation comes from our God who sits on the throne and from the Lamb!”

Some are hesitant to construct firm doctrinal positions based on the descriptive language of Revelation. This is understandable because of its symbolic and sometimes cryptic nature. But those who believe in the provision of an intermediate body between death and resurrection also find support in 2 Corinthians 5:1 and Luke 16:19-26.

2 Corinthians 5 (in context: 2 Corinthians 4:16-18).

“If the earthly tent which is our house is torn down (i.e., if we die), “we have” (present tense) a house not made with hands” (2 Corinthians 5:1). Some argue that the “house not made with hands is a temporary phase of the eternal body of the deceased, just as our current physical body is a temporary phase of the eternal body until Christ’s coming (see also, Luke 16:19-26).

Some of this cannot be as clearly defined as we might like but we can be sure that the souls of believers who die before the resurrection enter into conscious fellowship with God in heaven. They are not in a state of soul sleep as taught by the Seventh-Day Adventists. Scripture refers to those who have died as “falling asleep” or “those who sleep,” but the expression is used of the body, not of the soul. And it is a metaphoric expression designed to communicate the temporary nature of bodily death (as sleep is only temporary; see, Matthew 9:24; 27:52; John 11:11; Acts 7:60; 13:36; 1 Corinthians 15:6, 18, 20, 51; 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 5:10)

When Jesus spoke to His disciples about the death of Lazarus, He said, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awake him out of sleep” (John 11:11).  We should notice that Jesus does not say, “The soul of Lazarus is sleeping,” nor, in fact, does any passage in Scripture say that the soul of a person is sleeping or unconscious (a statement that would be necessary to prove the doctrine of soul sleep).  Rather Jesus simply says that Lazarus has fallen asleep.  Then John explains, “Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he meant taking rest in sleep. Then Jesus told them plainly, ‘Lazarus is dead’” (John 11:12-13). Sleep is a metaphoric expression to teach that death is temporary.

Jesus said, “But about the resurrection of the dead—have you not read what God said to you, “‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living” (Matthew 22:31-32).

Long after their physical deaths, Jesus spoke of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as the “living.” We know that they are alive, in conscious fellowship with God and with all other inhabitants of heaven. (Note that the destiny of unbelievers will also be conscious existence: Matthew 25:41, 46).

What Jesus said in Matthew 22:31-32 also indicates that individual identity in heaven will be preserved (identity continuous with our earthly identity).  (See also Matthew 8:11 and Matthew 17:1-4 and 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18).

Here is a verse to memorize as a strong word of comfort: “ If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord” (Romans 14:8).

Steve Cornell


This entry was posted in Afraid to die, Afterlife, Comfort, Death, Eschatology, Eternal life, Heaven, Resurrection. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to Do people in heaven exist as disembodied spirits?

  1. Pingback: Do you expect to live after your earthly life ends? | WisdomForLife

  2. M.M.Bridle says:

    Hi Steve,
    your grotesque piece of theological reasoning is truly delightful. How you quote, with scientific precision, the incontrovertible “proofs” from the bible. Amazing. I think people instinctively crave irrationality, don’t you think? Otherwise, how could medieval delusions persist in the 21st century?

    Please write something again soon on another “mystery”, like the trinity, or transubstantiation or perpetual virginity — your choice. And when your wish comes true and you are finally in heaven, have a great time and give my best regards to Yahwe, that old homicidal maniac!

    Mark M. Bridle

    • If condescending ridicule without substantive reasoning is the best you can offer, it exposes motives typical to those who hope there is no God. There are far too many realities consistent with the narrative of Scripture for me to reject them for wishful thinking that I am the product of chance without design and without accountability to a Creator (see: Belief in the Trinity is not irrational but it is beyond the full reach of finite minds. How is transubstantiation irrational? There is no biblical teaching on perpetual virginity. Are you flirting with a little chronological snobbery by unilaterally placing whatever YOU wish into a category of medieval delusions? Be careful.

      I will grant you this: If there is no personal Creator, our existence is most certainly a cosmic accident. We exist by chance, not by design or purpose. And, if this is an accurate accounting for our existence, several facts logically follow:

      1. Notions of ultimate meaning are based on wishful thinking and irrational fantasy.

      2. There is no ultimate morality; no right or wrong; no transcendent morality. On this version of reality, morals are simply matters of personal or societal opinion. The so-called problem of evil cannot be addressed and cannot (on rational grounds) really be called a problem .

      3. Death is both the irreversible cessation of organismic functioning and the irreversible loss of personhood. There is no hope of anything outside of this life. Apart from the existence of a Creator, we exist by chance in a deterministic universe governed by raw natural selection.

      I guess we just need to get on with it until it’s over. But humans everywhere throughout all of history intuitively know this is not the case.

      If, on the other hand, there is a Creator, a personal God who made us male and female in His own image, then at least three truths follow:

      1. Life has value, meaning and dignity beyond the limitation of human opinion.

      2. Personal identity, human freedom and responsibility become genuine markers of our existence. We have been endowed by our Creator with these qualities.

      3. The transcendent (which we intuitively recognize) elevates us out of the despair of human relativism and the limitations of human inquiry.

  3. The identification as “spirits” is a designation of the souls of believers which are separated from their earthly bodies until the resurrection.

    My understanding is that the word ‘spirit’, when it comes to the existence of man, speaks of his ‘breath’ or ‘wind’. In Genesis, God breathed into man nostrils, the breath of life and man became a living soul.’ The official biblical definition for ‘soul’ is the breath of God plus the physical body. Yes, I am SDA. Man becomes a conscious being when you unite the breath of God with the human body. By definition then, man becomes an unconscious being when you separate them as well. The bible has no verse that implies man’s soul is eternal, a verse critical to proving that man’s soul is eternal. On the contrary, the bible is very clear, the soul can be destroyed. If the soul is eternal, then man’s soul existed before his actual creation, a belief that is held by Mormons and spiritualists. The bible only describes God as ‘immortal’, all other beings, including angels who are spirit in nature, derive life from God.

  4. They are not in a state of soul sleep as taught by the Seventh-Day Adventists. Scripture refers to those who have died as “falling asleep” or “those who sleep,” but the expression is used of the body, not of the soul.

    This is assuming Christ believed as Plato did. That the soul is a conscious entity separate from the body. I am more inclined to believe Christ believed what Solomon, the wisest man that ever lived, wrote, that ‘the living know that they will die, but the dead know not anything’. Christ in referring to sleep, was not referring to merely the body, but the entire being, spirit, soul and body. According to Genesis, the soul is the compilation of God’s breath and flesh. Therefore, a LIVING being is a ‘soul’, the ‘Breath of life’ or spirit of God, which was the activating agent for life, is never described as a separate conscious entity anywhere in scripture.

  5. Long after their physical deaths, Jesus spoke of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as the “living.” We know that they are alive, in conscious fellowship with God and with all other inhabitants of heaven.

    Christ was clearly talking about the resurrection, not about a disembodied state of being. It was in response to the unbelief of the Sadducees of a resurrection, that Christ stated ‘God is the God of the living’. Christ was in no way implying Abraham was some floating spirit in heaven but that Abraham would live again at the resurrection, an event the Sadducees rejected. Heaven is not full of ghosts. For all the eternal soul rhetoric, man, in his most basic form, is flesh and blood, not spirit. That is how the bible describes us. We are not like the angels, that are spirit. Therefore, a disembodied human being, is not really a living human being but a dead human being that is conscious (ghost), which the bible denies is even possible. Even if it were, any form of ‘dead’ cannot exist in the presence of God, period.

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